The transition of enterprises from informality to formality – some evidence from Zimbabwe
and 'graduating' into the formal sector. The initial survivalist strategies of using family labour and working from home were replaced by strategies to upgrade technology, employ additional labour and move premises into industrial areas. Eventually it is difficult to distinguish between 'graduating'
enterprises and those that started out in the formal sector.
- Trade-off between outreach and sustainability of microfinance institutions: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa
- What is cocoa sustainability? Mapping stakeholders’ socio-economic, environmental, and commercial constellations of priorities
- Impact assessment of commodity standards: towards inclusive value chains
- Development impact bonds: learning from the Asháninka cocoa and coffee case in Peru
- New approaches to MSME lending: challenging traditional credit assessment models in electronic cash-flow environments